PyangBind is designed both as a means to generate data instances for YANG modules, but also as a software component that can be used in an NMS implementation. To that end, there can be requirements to tie methods to particular data instances in the tree.

The extension methods (extmethods) functionality provides a means to tie arbitrary methods to a particular path in the tree.


Initialising Classes with extmethods

To use extension methods, the PyangBind bindings must be generated with --use-extmethods. This ensures that the extmethods dictionary is propagated from parent to child objects as they are instantiated.

The extmethods dictionary is of the form:

1  {
2    "/path/to/object/one": <Class Instance>,
3    "/path/to/object/two": <Class instance>
4  }

Where /path/to/object/one is defined as the XPATH to the object that the method is to be bound to without any filtering attributes. That is to say, for /bgp/global/config/as the path specified is simply /bgp/global/config/as whereas for /bgp/neighbors/neighbor[peer-addr='']/config/peer-as then the path specified is /bgp/neighbors/neighbor/config/peer-as. It is not possible to bind an extension method to a single instance.

Each object, as it is instantiated, then consults the extmethods dictionary, if it finds an entry which corresponds to its exact path, it inherits all methods of the class instance provided - and will proxy any calls to itself to that class. The names of the methods are prefixed by an underscore in order to avoid collisions between actual data element names and method names.

Example Calls with extmethods

If one has the following class definition:

 2from openconfig import openconfig_bgp
 4class BgpNeighborHelper(object):
 5  def soft_reset(self, *args, **kwargs):
 6    # Do a soft reset of the neighbor
 7    pass
 9  def hard_reset(self, *args, **kwargs):
10    # Do a hard reset of the neighbor
11    pass

A set of PyangBind classes (e.g., OpenConfig BGP) can be initialised with an extmethods dictionary that provides a mapping between an instance of the BGPNeighborHelper class and an XPATH expression. For example, between the config/enabled leaf of each BGP neighbor and this class:

1bgp_helper =  BGPNeighborHelper()
2extmethods = {
3      '/bgp/neighbors/neighbor/neighbor/config/enabled': bgp_helper
6ocbgp = openconfig_bgp(extmethods=extmethods)

Each entry within the /bgp/neighbors/neighbor list would have methods named soft_reset and hard_reset bound to their config/enabled leaf.

i.e., a hard reset or soft reset could be initiated by calling:


When this call is made, the instance of the BgpNeighborHelper class named bgp_helper (which was supplied in the extmethods dictionary) will receive a call to the soft_reset or hard_reset method).

In addition to the arguments and keyword arguments that are supplied to the function (which are directly proxied through), two additional kwargs are added:

  • caller - this is a list which provides the components of the path of the actual object that the method was called against. For example in the above case this would correspond to /bgp/neighbors/neighbor[peer-addr=""].config.enabled - and hence be ['bgp', 'neighbors', 'neighbor[peer-addr=''], 'config', 'enabled']. This allows disambiguation of calls that may come from multiple sources.
  • path_helper which provides a reference to the path_helper class that is being used by the classes. This can allow the extmethod to retrieve the data instance that called it if required.